Phonetic Annotation (PA) is a method for describing Vietnamese pronunciation using Hán Nôm characters. It makes use of 23 basic Hán Nôm characters which are extended by a set of 19 vowel/tone marks.
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Consonants (Hán Nôm)
Left part of
How to write
When writing a word is split into the four components initial, vowel nucleus, coda, and tone. For example 船 thuyền (boat) is split into the components [tʰ], [ʷiə], [n] and the low tone. Initials and coda consonants are represented by Hán-Nôm characters. To form a word a vowel symbol and a tone symbol are added.
The [w] glide that occurs in words like thuỷ, khoái, quyền, etc. is written by adding a horizontal bar to the vowel:
Final consonants are written with the corresponding Hán-Nôm. Final semi vowels are written with the vowel symbol for i and ô.