Phonetic Annotation v2 (beta)

Phonetic Annotation v2 (beta) is a method for describing Vietnamese pronunciation using Hán Nôm characters.

A syllable is split into four components: initial, nucleus, coda, tone. For example thuyền is split into: TH, UYÊ, N, and the huyền tone. For each component you can lookup the corresponding shape in the table below.

Character chart

For example for ca you choose from the table. By adding the coda symbol you get cam .

Tones are indicated by adding a tone component above the coda. For example sáng 攵. The 𠂉 component indicates the sắc tone.

If no coda is present the tone component is added in full width directly after the vowel. Note: The full width form of 𠂉 is , for example .

Alternatively when a coda is not present, a smaller tone mark can be added to the vowel as an abbreviation: 丶 ス 久 ⺀

For example lạ 二 can be abbreviated as , likewise cả ス can be abbreviated as , and can be shortened to .